Structure of Hydrazoic Acid and Its Azide Derivatives

When we think of nitrogen and hydrogen, we are likely to think first of ammonia, NH3. But what of hydrazoic acid? Hydrazoic acid is HN3. It looks to be the opposite of ammonia. What is the chemical structure of hydrazoic acid and its azide derivatives? And why are they of importance to us? Valence Consideration When we think of hydrogen, we think of a +1 valence, though at times it is assigned a –1 valence. Similarly, nitrogen ordinarily assumes either a +3 or a +5 valence. Both ammonia and hydrazoic acid exhibit a +3 valence for nitrogen. All of this is well and good, but what is the structure of ammonia? of hydrazoic acid and the azides? In both instances, we may be surprised that what we imagine may not…
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The Ammonia Flip, Quantum Tunneling and Oscillations

[caption id="attachment_25040" align="alignleft" width="400"] Image U..C. Davis[/caption]Unexplained by classical mechanics, the ammonia flip occurs when an ammonia molecule flips like an umbrella... Quantum mechanics explains how some phenomena occur which are not part of everyday experience. The ammonia molecule can flip when ordinary logic suggests it should not be able to do so. When most people think of ammonia, they think of a household cleaner. Actually, ammonia is a gas. The household cleaner is a dilute solution of that gas in water. Chemists would call that ammonium hydroxide. Ammonia has the very simple chemical formula, NH3. That's the formula; but what's its structure? How would you draw it? Would you draw it like an airplane propeller with the nitrogen being the hub and the tips of the three blades the…
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Ammonia Plus Bleach – Why a Bad Choice

Chemistry, Health
[caption id="attachment_5877" align="alignright" width="440"] Monochloramine[/caption] Housewives and others running the home are urged not to mix household ammonia plus bleach together. Why? Because the result is a poisonous gas. What gas? What is the chemical reaction that produces it? Bleach There are two varieties of household bleach. There is oxygen bleach. And there is chlorine bleach. It is the chlorine variety that causes the risk. Chlorine bleach is a solution of sodium or calcium hypochlorite in water. Its strength runs 3 to 5 percent in water. Ammonia 100% ammonia is not a liquid. It is a gas. Household "ammonia" is about a 5 percent water solution. Ammonia gas has the formula NH₃. The solution is sometimes written NH₄OH. NH₃ + HOH → NH₄OH In reality, most of the ammonia is…
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