## Introduction to Polar Coordinates

[caption id="attachment_25281" align="alignright" width="403"] Polar rose: r = 2 sin (4*θ)[/caption]Frequently used in analytical geometry is the standard 2-dimensional x, y coordinate system called the Cartesian coordinate system (named after famous mathematician, René Descartes). It's time to branch out to a different system, the polar coordinates system. In fact, there are any of a number of ways of locating points in 2-D space. Conversion from Cartesian Coordinates The polar coordinates system utilizes an angle and a radius. It is relatively simple to change from the x-y system to an r-θ system. Drawing a circle centered at the origin on an x-y plane and then drawing a right triangle with the radius of the circle equaling r, then by definition, the side adjacent to the angle divided by the hypotenuse (longest…

## Analytic Geometry Coordinate Axes and Drawing a Line

In analytical geometry (usually taught in high school), two lines are drawn on a paper that are perpendicular to each other. The vertical line represents the "y-axis," and the horizontal line represents the "x-axis." Using these two axes, every point on the paper can be given a value that defines where the point is. If the place where the two lines cross is the zero point or origin, its coordinates (x, y) are simply, (0, 0). Along the horizontal x-axis, starting to the right of the (0, 0) point, write little numbers like a ruler has, 1, 2, 3, and so forth. To the left of that point, write, -1, -2, -3, and so on. For the y-axis, the 1, 2, 3, and such go upward, whereas the -1, -2,…