Xylitol – A Natural Artificial Sweetener

Food, Health
Most of us are familiar with xylitol because the label on our chewing gum boasts it is sugar-free¹, using xylitol in its place. This so-called artificial sweetener is prepared industrially by the catalytic hydrogenation of xylose. Xylose itself is a sugar. It may be isolated from wood. Xylitol is not decomposed in the mouth by bacteria. It is not well-absorbed in the small intestine. Hence, it is less of a threat to the diabetic and does not add to the dentist's paycheck. In the Mouth [caption id="attachment_26073" align="alignright" width="238"] Streptococcus mutans[/caption] In a person's mouth, Streptococcus mutans bacteria consumes reactive sugar (usually sucrose or table sugar), releasing in its place, carboxylic acids. Over time, the acid environment damages teeth. Xylitol is not a reactive sugar, meaning the acids are not…
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Total Energy in One Hydrogen Atom

Chemistry, Physics
[caption id="attachment_14456" align="alignright" width="440"] Hydrogen Bomb[/caption] Hydrogen is the lightest of the elements. However, there are three isotopes of hydrogen. The lightest of these is protium. It contains just one proton and one electron. Let’s determine the total energy of one protium atom. Its mass is 1.007822 atomic mass units. So what is the total energy one hydrogen atom produces if obliterated? By obliterated, we mean 100% conversion from matter to energy, not the mere energy of separation of particles, as in fission. Einstein’s Mass-to-Energy Equation In our calculating, it is important we stick to proper units. If we were cooking and the recipe called for a cup of flour, would we substitute a tablespoon? Our equation is Einstein’s mass to energy expression, E = mc² If the mass is…
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