## Do Lone Atoms or Molecules Assume States of Matter?

Search the Internet for the definition of states of matter and much comes up. Perhaps you are the sort of reader who peeks first at Wikipedia to get some ideas what other sites you will visit to obtain answers to your questions. At any rate, you will note basic descriptions for the states of matter you experience every day. Take the following discussion for what it is: a hypothetical discussion on the nature of matter. If you can demonstrate its veracity or illegitimacy, please do that in the Comments section, below. States of Matter Solid: “Atoms or molecules fixed in location and locked in place.” How are these particles locked into place? They bond to each other and do not readily move around, much like the assembled pieces in a…

## Total Energy in One Hydrogen Atom

[caption id="attachment_14456" align="alignright" width="440"] Hydrogen Bomb[/caption] Hydrogen is the lightest of the elements. However, there are three isotopes of hydrogen. The lightest of these is protium. It contains just one proton and one electron. Let’s determine the total energy of one protium atom. Its mass is 1.007822 atomic mass units. So what is the total energy one hydrogen atom produces if obliterated? By obliterated, we mean 100% conversion from matter to energy, not the mere energy of separation of particles, as in fission. Einstein’s Mass-to-Energy Equation In our calculating, it is important we stick to proper units. If we were cooking and the recipe called for a cup of flour, would we substitute a tablespoon? Our equation is Einstein’s mass to energy expression, E = mc² If the mass is…

## Calculate Radiation Energy By Wavelength

[caption id="attachment_6281" align="alignright" width="480"] Rainbow Light[/caption] Light exhibits properties that make it seem to have a dual-nature. Sometimes it resembles a particle. Sometimes it resembles a wave. In this article, the energy of a particle will be calculated using a wave property - wavelength. The energy is radiation energy. Radiation from the electromagnetic spectrum in order of decreasing wavelength begins at the low end with radio waves and microwaves. Next is light radiation from the infrared region, the visible and the ultraviolet. Highest in frequency are the x-rays and cosmic radiation. The wavelength range is from approximately 100,000 centimeters to one ten-billionth of a centimeter! The Nature of Light Scientists do not completely understand light. So far it has best been described as possessing two natures. Sometimes it acts as…

## Factors that Complicate Atomic Mass Determination

[caption id="attachment_8319" align="alignright" width="440"] Nucleus - CC-SA-3.0 by Marekich[/caption] Modern chemistry depends a good deal upon accurately knowing the atomic mass of each of the elements. What factors complicate determining those values? Each of the approximately 90 different natural-occurring elements possesses a nucleus or central core of protons and neutrons, in addition to electrons that orbit around the nucleus. It is important to the chemist or physicist to know the total mass of each element. Can correct values be obtained simply by summing the weight of individual particles in an atom? After all, each of these particles has a precisely known mass. The answer is, No! Such calculations disagree with experimental measurement. An example illustrates the point. Consider Helium-3 An atom of helium-3 has two protons, one neutron, and two…