The Molecular Structure of Hydronium Ion Hydrate

Chemistry, Physics
[caption id="attachment_16126" align="alignright" width="440"] Simple hydronium ion, unhydrated.[/caption] Abstract: The water molecule, H2O, can attach a hydrogen ion (H+) perhaps from a dissolved acid, to become a hydronium ion, H3O+, sometimes called a hydroxonium ion. This ion, if surrounded by water molecules, can form additional hydrogen bonds with them as well. The question is what is the molecular structure of the resulting hydronium ion hydrate? The mind conceives two serious possibilities. But what do studies reveal? Background It is a general principle of nature that a system is more stable if charges are spread out as much as possible. In the field of chemistry, the best known example of this involves water. Although the sum total of the electric charge of a neutral water molecule is zero, as the image…
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