## The Ammonia Flip, Quantum Tunneling and Oscillations

[caption id="attachment_25040" align="alignleft" width="400"] Image U..C. Davis[/caption]Unexplained by classical mechanics, the ammonia flip occurs when an ammonia molecule flips like an umbrella... Quantum mechanics explains how some phenomena occur which are not part of everyday experience. The ammonia molecule can flip when ordinary logic suggests it should not be able to do so. When most people think of ammonia, they think of a household cleaner. Actually, ammonia is a gas. The household cleaner is a dilute solution of that gas in water. Chemists would call that ammonium hydroxide. Ammonia has the very simple chemical formula, NH3. That's the formula; but what's its structure? How would you draw it? Would you draw it like an airplane propeller with the nitrogen being the hub and the tips of the three blades the…

## Imaginary Space, Imaginary Time?

[caption id="attachment_5427" align="alignright" width="480"] Square Root of -1[/caption] What do you think? Could there be imaginary space? imaginary time? In the real world, there are many and varied ideas we can comprehend, or at least find conceivable. However, there are concepts beyond our comprehension. This does not automatically make them unreal. One such concept is the imaginary number. Physically, the imaginary number is real. To date, however, no one has satisfactorily explained the phenomenon. Simplest Case The simplest imaginary number is the square root of –1. Does that sound like it should be no problem? Well, the square root of 1 has two values: –1 and 1. That can be proven. 1 x 1 = 1, right? And –1 x –1 = 1, right? Well, what number n is there,…

## Electron Structure in Atoms

[caption id="attachment_4966" align="alignright" width="440"] 4dxz Orbital[/caption] Chemistry is the study of the interactions of atoms, determined largely by the outermost or surface electrons. Electron structure in atoms obeys the laws of quantum mechanics. They do not move randomly as if in some sort of cloud, but are organized into shells, subshells and orbitals. Electron Structure in Atoms Four quantum numbers are responsible for this structure. They are the principal quantum number, the azimuthal quantum number, the magnetic quantum number and the spin quantum number. Principal Quantum Number - Shells The principal quantum number, “n”, must be a positive integer. That is n = 1, 2, 3… This number dictates an electron’s energy level. Electrons fill the lowest energy level first, then the second energy level, the third and so on.…