## Converting Gas Temperature to Particle Velocity

[caption id="attachment_18761" align="alignright" width="440"] Atoms or Molecules of Gas[/caption] Unlike liquids or solids, whose atoms or molecules have greater correlation with each other, gas atoms and molecules move somewhat independently of each other. This is to be expected. A gas occupies a much greater volume than a corresponding liquid. This independent behavior allows us to calculate the root-mean-square velocity of gas particles directly from temperature. Tweaking the Ideal Gas Law We derive this equation from another well-known equation, the Ideal Gas Law equation. Algebraically, that equation is written: PV = nRT where P is pressure, V is volume (not velocity), n is the number of moles of gas, R is the ideal gas constant and T is the temperature. By combining the above equation with derivatives of Boltzmann's equation, we…

## Temperature Different from Heat?

[caption id="attachment_5975" align="alignright" width="440"] Thermometer - Image: CDC[/caption] Is temperature different from heat? Yes, even though the two are related. Atoms or molecules, whether of a solid, a liquid, or a gas, vibrate. They may also rotate. They may even move through space. This latter form of motion is called translation. Atoms consist of protons and neutrons in a central core called a nucleus. The nucleus is orbited by one or more electrons. These electrons are called bound electrons, to distinguish them from free moving, unassociated, non-orbiting, electrons. Atoms + Energy Energize atoms and their vibrations, rotations, and translations are almost certain to alter. Exactly what happens depends on the way in which the energy is supplied and the way in which it is absorbed. The greater the atomic or…