Anatomy of a Dog’s Tail

I have long wondered how a dog's tail wags tail. Clearly the process involves bones [and/or cartilage] and muscles. I was pleased to find, when Googling on the subject, that Highlights for Children put the same question out there – for children. Dog's Tail - A Kid's Perspective What is the anatomy of a dog's tail? Highlights suggested a tail is a string of bones [vertebrae] like a string of beads, and that there are muscles attached to the bones. That’s a nice generalization suitable for kids, but let’s try to go just a little past that. An Adult Point of View Pet Place says that tail vertebrae are highly mobile. They are “enclosed” in muscles that enable delicate tail movements, including lifting, dropping, and left and right movement, plus…
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