What’s the Problem?The Lone Star tick bite can cause a red rash. The rash plus other symptoms may clear up with use of the antibiotic doxycycline. Yet, if treatment is not timely, a chronic problem can develop. Lone Star tick saliva can cause a permanent allergy to the eating of red meat. The Lone Star tick is not alone in this. So-called seed ticks may do the same.
Lone Star Tick Bite ChemistryLone Star tick saliva contains galactose-α-1,3-galactose. What is that? Often called alpha gal, it is a molecule made up of two galactose sugar units joined a certain way. What’s surprising is alpha gal has caused some to contract severe allergy responses to eating red meat.
SymptomatologyMost serious is delayed anaphylaxia. This trait can develop hours after exposure. After an onset of symptoms such as rash or hives, breathing may be greatly restricted. Oddly, persons with certain blood types may be immune to such a response.
Allergic ResponseAllergic response involves a specific antibody, Immunoglobulin E (IgE). Even if it is present in very low levels, IgE can produce serious breathing related reactions. Alpha-gal-specific IgE in the blood can attach to mast cells. A mast cell is a cell that contains basophil granules and is often found in connective tissue. If exposure to the allergen is repeated, these cells are triggered release granules that cause allergic response.
- Medline Plus: Certain Tick Bites Might Spur Red Meat Allergy
- CDC and Prevention: Southern Tick Associated Rash Illness
- UVA Health System: Study describes “delayed anaphylaxis…”
- CNN: Ticks causing mysterious meat allergy
- Asthma and Allergy Foundation of America: IgE’s Role in Allergic Asthma