Is Gravity in Atoms Significant? No. Prove It!

Mathematics, Physics
[caption id="attachment_23683" align="alignright" width="480"] Is there gravity in the atom?[/caption] Theories of the microscopic never seem to include reference to gravity in the atom. Should they? What do you think? Numbers don’t lie: The reality is, gravity inside the atom is pretty insignificant. Let’s look at this in terms of scale, and then examine the equations for determining gravitational pull. Atoms and our Scale of Reference It is the human tendency to draw conclusions – with reference to the extremely large and the extremely small – on the basis of what we experience in our scale of reference. In fact, much good science has been realized using such assumptions. But only much good science – by no means all. In fact, many of the most incredible discoveries have not been…
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Jargon: When to Use It and When Not to Use It

Education, People
[caption id="attachment_18089" align="alignright" width="420"] Huh?[/caption] Jargon is essential to many professions. Jargon consists of words and phrases that speed up communication when discussing complex or convoluted ideas. But the silver lining of jargon frequently enshrouds a gray cloud. An Example A chemist speaks to a lab technician about sodium cations. Now most of us know what a sodium atom is, but the word ‘cation’ doesn’t ring a bell. What is a cation? As the last three letters of its name suggest, a cation is an ion. Atoms are electrically neutral. That is, they do not have a net electrical charge. Although they contain positive protons and negative electrons, the total charges are equal. In effect, they cancel each other out. Add an additional electron or subtract one already present and…
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Factors that Complicate Atomic Mass Determination

[caption id="attachment_8319" align="alignright" width="440"] Nucleus - CC-SA-3.0 by Marekich[/caption] Modern chemistry depends a good deal upon accurately knowing the atomic mass of each of the elements. What factors complicate determining those values? Each of the approximately 90 different natural-occurring elements possesses a nucleus or central core of protons and neutrons, in addition to electrons that orbit around the nucleus. It is important to the chemist or physicist to know the total mass of each element. Can correct values be obtained simply by summing the weight of individual particles in an atom? After all, each of these particles has a precisely known mass. The answer is, No! Such calculations disagree with experimental measurement. An example illustrates the point. Consider Helium-3 An atom of helium-3 has two protons, one neutron, and two…
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