In Simple Terms: The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle

Nature, Physics
[caption id="attachment_26306" align="alignright" width="480"] L to R: Niels Bohr, Werner Heisenberg, Wolfgang Pauli[/caption]Werner Heisenberg (1901-1976) was yet another bright German physicist. He was a "founder" of quantum mechanics, the physics of the subatomic. As with astrophysics, behavior at this level appears to vary from the physics of the everyday world. A Brief Description The velocity of an auto of mass m can be measured accurately. If its velocity remains constant, its location over time is predictable. This is the norm according to ordinary human experience. Yet, at submicroscopic levels, physicists experienced something different. For certain measurements, various pairs of variables could not both be accurately known simultaneously. Simultaneous measurement is only precise to a point. These pairs of variables are termed conjugate variables. The Standard Example The simplest example is…
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Cyclobutadiene Antiaromatic or Other Destabilization Factors?

Clearly cyclobutadiene is not aromatic. Is cyclobutadiene antiaromatic? Or is its lack of stability due to other factors? Cyclobutadiene is a four-carbon hydrocarbon. The –diene part of its name indicates it has two double bonds. The cyclo– part indicates it is not a chain structure, but a cyclic (ring) structure. Now double bonds hold atoms tighter than single ones do. So they are shorter than single bonds. This causes cyclobutadiene to assume a rectangular shape. If it were square instead, it would indicate the four carbon to carbon bonds were identical, and aromatic. Cyclobutadiene's four hydrogen atoms point away from the ring. Analyzing the Structure Cyclobutadiene is flat. The two double bonds of cyclobutadiene are conjugated. That is, their ring structure alternates double bond, single bond, double bond, single bond.…
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