How Does Thioglycolate Hair Remover Work?

Biology, Chemistry
Hair: men bemoan its loss and women fret over its appearance. For decades during the 20th Century, women were enamored by the so-called permanent wave. The most common process for assuring permanency of a hairstyle obtained at the beauty parlor involved a chemical process involving thioglycolate. See, Permanent Wave: Chem-mystery of Curl. By Extension... Although this process was used, not to remove hair, but to beautify it, by extension, a closely related process has been used to eliminate hair that grows¹ in undesired places. Notice this chemical reaction that occurs when thioglycolate is used to remove hair². 2 HOOC-CH₂-SH + R-S-S-R → HOOC-CH₂-S-S-CH₂-COOH + 2 R-SH The above reaction reads: two thioglycolic acid molecules plus one cystine (disulfide hair bond) produces two dithioglycolic acid molecules and two cysteine molecules. To…
Read More

Cooked Blueberries Taste Different – Why?

Chemistry, Food
Moderate heating of most single chemical compounds simply raises their temperature. Perhaps there may be an accompanying change of state. Thus ice if heated forms liquid water. But with increased heat, compounds can be made to break down. For instance, sugar melts and caramelizes. Biological systems, such as fruits, may experience cell wall breakdown and a number of chemical changes. Consider one example: cooked blueberries taste different from raw blueberries. Why is that? Relevant Blueberry Chemistry Much of the blueberry chemistry relevant to our discussion stems from compounds containing the same skeletal structure, that of the molecule flavone. Flavone has two rings: one large, one small. The larger ring includes an ether linkage (–C–O–C–) and a ketone group (–C–(C=O)–C–). The compounds as a group are the flavonoids. [caption id="attachment_19735" align="alignleft"…
Read More