Chemistry: What’s a Chromophore?

One online definition of chromophore is "an atom or group whose presence is responsible for the color of a compound." Although one may think of a chromophore that includes a metal atom such as copper, nickel, or cobalt, in organic chemistry a chromophore is more likely to consist of a collection of carbon-carbon multiple bonds, perhaps with modifying features. It is the organic variety we discuss in this article. Multiple Bonds Most organic compounds incorporate one or more of three carbon-to-carbon bond varieties: single bonds, double bonds, triple bonds. When drawing a basic organic compound, these are usually represented by: C–C, C=C, and C≡C, respectively. Although such notations are quite useful, they afford little information concerning bond nature and behavior. Bond Hybridization The best working hypothesis for bonding between atoms…
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The Fascinating Kitchen Physics of Boiling Water

Chemistry, Physics
[caption id="attachment_23534" align="alignright" width="480"] Image by Jeshoots[/caption] Cutting-edge science is fascinating. Yet the science of everyday life is anything but boring. Consider the simple act of boiling water on the kitchen stove. There are many factors that come into play leading to the production of steam. Let's take a close look at water as an individual molecule and as a cluster of interacting molecules. Water at the Molecular Level Water consists of one oxygen atom plus two hydrogen atoms. An atom of oxygen is much larger than one of hydrogen. Most hydrogen atoms consist of a lone electron in orbit about a single proton nucleus. Oxygen atoms have a much larger nucleus orbited by 8 electrons. Oxygen has a strong affinity for electrons. So it is an electronegative element. On…
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