Purines and Gout and Our Joints

Health, History
Gout is a condition of the joints and nearby tissues. The iconic feature is extreme swelling with great pain. Until recently, gout was considered a wealthy man’s disease. The development of gout is not bacterial or viral. Rather, it is a matter of body chemistry. Diet is the most controllable factor. Purines and gout were associated with consuming an abundance of rich food. That food included oysters, red meat, and strong brew. Purines and Gout Was an attack on diet a valid call? Somewhat. Gout pain and swelling arises from needle-like crystal deposits. Chemically, these crystals are the hydrated sodium salt of uric acid. Now red meat is rich in purines (we're not changing the subject). Compare the ring structures of purine and of uric acid. Very similar, no? They…
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Imidazole Synthesis and Chemistry

Biology, Chemistry
Imidazole is an aromatic 5-member ring organic compound containing two skeletal atoms other than carbon. Both of those are nitrogen. One of the molecule's resonance structures, if it actually existed, would contain a secondary amine group (-NH-), an imine group (=N-), and an alkene group (-C=C-). The other resonance structure would contain two imine groups and a methylene group (-CH₂-). Those structures are drawn below. However, imidazole doesn't act like either of them. This is typical for aromatic compounds. We will briefly discuss the ring's synthesis and chemistry. Synthesis Imidazole is formed by reacting glyoxal with formaldehyde in the presence of ammonium acetate in acetic acid. The driving energy is microwave radiation. More generally, this reaction is used to produce substituted imidazoles. The basic reaction, however, is written, OHC-CHO +…
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