Magnesium Chloride Anti-Icing Spray

Bible, Chemistry
How does your department of transportation deal with winter? Do they use a magnesium chloride anti-icing road treatment ahead of a snow storm? I am a chemist. I live where it snows a number of times each year. Road safety requires local transportation departments to plow during storms. Their efforts are enhanced if preparation is made beforehand. One way to accomplish this is by spraying roads ahead of time with anti-icing spray. Sand Spreading sand does help traction, but it doesn’t prevent or eliminate ice. There is another reason to use something besides sand. Has the reader heard of sandblasting? Particles of sand are blown against a surface to clean it. In fact, it is used to blast away paint from a painted surface. Is that what you want for…
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Why Sand Filtration to Treat Waste Water?

[caption id="attachment_5157" align="alignright" width="440"] Treatment Plant - CCA SA 3.0 Germany by Martina Nolte[/caption] Is sand filtration out of date? If not, what are its advantages? Waste water received by a treatment plant must be processed several ways before it is sent to the sand filter, disinfected and discharged to the environment. Large objects and grit are first removed. Treatment to remove nitrogen and phosphorous follows.  Suspended solids are digested and removed. The waste water is next aerated, allowed to settle and then pumped to the sand filter. Sand filtration blocks tiny particles. A separate layer of activated carbon may be included in the sand filter. Sand Filtration Operation Particle removal features two mechanisms. Particles larger than the gaps between grains of sand are blocked. Many smaller particles are absorbed…
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