Tires to Lemons – Well, Not Exactly

Chemistry, Technology
Although individuals and governments fall far short of maintaining Earth's pristine qualities, many do desire to minimize waste and its first cousin, pollution. Although one admirable action would be to minimize production, another is to recycle the resultant wastes. The late 19th and early 20th centuries introduced industrialization, and with it mechanization. Part of the mechanization was the automobile. And part of the automobile was the automobile tire. Tires are constructed of rubber or rubber-related products. They wear out well before most automobiles wear out. The problem is: what to do with all those worn-out, used tires? Millions and millions of them. They do not readily break down on being exposed to the elements. How can they be recycled? One Problem with Tires Now What might happen if tires were…
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Turpentine Pine Tree Resin Products: Why So Valuable?

Chemistry, Plants
[caption id="attachment_16454" align="alignright" width="380"] Pine resin. CCA 3.0 SA Unported Maksim.[/caption] Turpentine was once a very common household solvent. It seemed as if every household had a can in their garage. Turpentine is produced by distillation of pine tree resin. The solid remaining after distillation is called rosin. Doubtless the decreased household use of turpentine is because of an increase in water-based products such as paints, replacing oil-based equivalents. Petroleum based solvents have contributed to the decline. Solvent Only? Still, turpentine is more than just a useful solvent. It can be separated into fragments sometimes referred to as isolates. The primary isolate is pine oil, which is used, among other things, in household cleaners. Turpentine yields compounds that are useful in chemical synthesis. Chemicals readily available from nature that can…
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Terpenes and Terpenoids: Isoprene Rule

There are thousands of chemical compounds in nature. They are divvied up into categories or classifications. These include hormones, alkaloids, vitamins, neurotransmitters, enzymes, proteins, and nucleic acids. One group of chemicals follows a structure rule called the isoprene rule. Many every day substances are part of this group. One example is turpentine. Another is beta-carotene (the source of the orange color in carrots). Chemicals such as these derived from isoprene are called terpenoids. Structure and Statement of the Isoprene Rule Isoprene consists of carbon and hydrogen. But it is not limited to single bonds. See the image of isoprene (C5H8) featured with this article. The double lines stand for double bonds. Since the carbon pairs involved have two bonds rather than one, a hydrogen atom is missing from each of them.…
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