## Beer Bottle Condensation: What Forces Produce Droplets?

Dan asked us¹... "My question concerns condensation droplets. What dictates how droplets form, then combine with each other? When you blow warm breath onto a cool surface, at first nothing appears to happen. Keep it up and droplets appear. These small droplets merge into bigger droplets. What physical laws dictate how this occurs? Also, what role does gravity play on vertical surfaces such as a chilled bottle of beer, producing tiny rivulets of moisture running down the sides?" Initial Commentary The answer, which follows, although it has some basis in well-known physical principles, depends in part upon observation, mental visualization, and (finally) blatant speculation. This is an interesting procedure, since so many of life’s mundane occurrences are in reality quite fascinating when closely examined. Initial Condensation We breathe in and…

## Is Gravity in Atoms Significant? No. Prove It!

[caption id="attachment_23683" align="alignright" width="480"] Is there gravity in the atom?[/caption] Theories of the microscopic never seem to include reference to gravity in the atom. Should they? What do you think? Numbers don’t lie: The reality is, gravity inside the atom is pretty insignificant. Let’s look at this in terms of scale, and then examine the equations for determining gravitational pull. Atoms and our Scale of Reference It is the human tendency to draw conclusions – with reference to the extremely large and the extremely small – on the basis of what we experience in our scale of reference. In fact, much good science has been realized using such assumptions. But only much good science – by no means all. In fact, many of the most incredible discoveries have not been…

## Simplifying Mathematics: Introducing Vectors and Vector Addition

[caption id="attachment_23153" align="alignright" width="480"] Magnetic vector force field[/caption] We all know how to add, subtract, multiply and divide ordinary numbers, even if basic units are attached to them such as gallons, apples, feet, tons, and so forth. 4+3 = 7 5 lbs x 3.2 = 16 lbs These two examples illustrate pure numbers in the first instance, and simple quantities in the second instance. Introducing Vectors: What About Direction? What if we toss in direction? Imagine a huge square, 5 miles on a side. We have to travel along the perimeter to travel from Point A to Point B, and then on to our destination, Point C (see the image). We thus travel 10 miles to reach Point C. If we could travel "as the crow flies", we would only…

## Capillary Action from the Forces of Adhesion and Cohesion

What is capillary action? The easiest way to define it is to give the simplest example of it at work. A capillary is a tube with a fine bore, typically less than a millimeter. For the purpose of our discussion, we will use a scientist's glass capillary tube, which is both straight and clear. The liquids we will discuss as examples are water and mercury. Not All Liquids Exhibit Capillary Action Take note of Figure 1. Two capillary tubes (not drawn to scale) are immersed in liquid – the left tube in water, the right in mercury. The water rises up its tube and forms a concave meniscus at top. The mercury does not rise up its tube. It forms what looks like the upper portion of a sphere –…

## Origin Earth: From External Matter or By On Site Fusion?

[caption id="attachment_15593" align="alignright" width="480"] Nuclear fusion in a red giant.[/caption] Origin Earth: As elementary school students, we are taught many subjects, including science. We are taught proven facts, which is a fine thing. Yet some unproven ideas may be included disguised as actual fact. A science theory may be popular yet wrong. Recall the ancient idea that Earth is supported in space by objects such as elephants and turtles, rather than by gravity. Also recall our planet was thought to be the center of the universe, while the sun rotated about it. Finally, remember, recall, realize that some felt the earth was one heck-of-a huge flat pancake. The Big Bang Theory One popular origins theory is the Big Bang. Simply put, a large explosion occurred that propelled matter and energy…