Tires to Lemons – Well, Not Exactly

Chemistry, Technology
Although individuals and governments fall far short of maintaining Earth's pristine qualities, many do desire to minimize waste and its first cousin, pollution. Although one admirable action would be to minimize production, another is to recycle the resultant wastes. The late 19th and early 20th centuries introduced industrialization, and with it mechanization. Part of the mechanization was the automobile. And part of the automobile was the automobile tire. Tires are constructed of rubber or rubber-related products. They wear out well before most automobiles wear out. The problem is: what to do with all those worn-out, used tires? Millions and millions of them. They do not readily break down on being exposed to the elements. How can they be recycled? One Problem with Tires Now What might happen if tires were…
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Lemon Chemistry: Flavor and Aroma Profiles

Chemistry, Food
To detect aroma, airborne chemicals must enter into our nasal passages. Volatile aromatic oils carried in when we breathe, interact with receptors located along those passages. Though flavor is somewhat influenced by our sense of smell, flavor primarily requires substance solubility in order to reach the different kinds of receptors located in various parts of the tongue. Let's explore a little lemon chemistry. Lemon Chemistry: Flavor The tongue detects four, perhaps five, flavors. They are sweet, salty, sour, and bitter. Some add savory1. There can be no doubt the primary taste of lemon is sour. Mention sour and the organic chemist thinks of organic acids. Lemons are rich in three organic acids: citric, malic, and ascorbic (AKA Vitamin C). Citric acid predominates. Suck on citric acid and you’ll think of…
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